A. APPLICATIONS OF ACTIVATED CARBON
Activated carbon is an adsorption agent due to the large surface area, micro-porous structure, high adsorption capacity and interactivity on large surfaces. The important applications of activated carbon is related to the applications of discoloration, odor and other non-organic impurities from the tap, in the inner water works, sewage industry, solvent recovery, gas purification in crowded places such as restaurants, food processing industry, chemicals processing for color reduction of sugar, in polluted air control, filtration in chemical industry, medicine, food and filtering applications. Activated carbon is increased use in the field of metals such as recovering gold, silver and other non-organic substances and as a catalyst, the carrier. Medical and pharmaceutical applications against pathogenic bacteria are particularly well known.
There are two typical air filter systems. An air filtration application in crowded places such as offices, hospitals, laboratories, restaurants and food processing machines, places where need free clean air. Another system is used to limit polluted air like emissions from industrial activities such as manufacturing gunpowder, plastics, synthetic plastics, tanning, in industrial processes such as: rubber industry, paint industry, varnishes, textiles, adhesive plastics, etc.
Air filter is processed in areas where pollution density is below 10ppm, usually from 2-3ppm and in this case, the system of activated charcoal filter is used. In areas with low pollution level, these filtration systems can work for a long time. The process of generating activated carbon from using is very expensive. In the process of air pollution control, there is a requirement of the systems equipped respectively with high pollution density. Used activated carbon needs to be regenerated by steam, air and toxic gas processing. These applications require activated carbon with different porous structures. Activated carbon used for air filter in public places should have micro-porous structure to have high effect in adsorption at low concentration. In the case of activated carbon used to control environmental pollution, the hole must have greater absorption capacity in pollutant concentration 10-500ppm. It is difficult to determine exactly the diameter, but in general, the hole with large diameter, high density of micro-hole and intermediate strip is preferred because of absorbing this pollution level.
2. Activated carbon used in anti-toxic masks:
There are two types of anti-toxic masks, and natural properties of activated carbon are differently required. Anti-toxic masks used in chemical industry contain toxic chemicals which are relatively low and usually have high molecular weight. These chemicals are absorbed strongly and quickly by activated carbon. But activated carbon used in the military requires thorough protection to chemicals and strong toxic vapors. Moreover, some chemicals related to the physical adsorption process, while other substances are chemically absorbed (chloropicrin, cyanogen, chloride). Therefore, for the latter, impregnated activated carbon in which the impregnating agent is interactive to different chemicals is used.
3. Activated carbon used in nuclear factories:
Activated carbon filtration system is used in the nuclear factories to limit the escape of radioactive vapor and some gases such as: Krupton, xenon released to the environment. The main concern in the nuclear reaction is methyl iodide and gases in failed reaction condition. On the other hand, activated carbon used to remove helium is used as protecting gas in cold reaction and regulated by water.
4. Recover Gasoline, Propane and butane from natural gas:
Natural gas contains about 3% propane and 4-5% hydrocarbons recovered by adsorption of activated carbon. Approximately 35% propane and 70% butane and 98-99% Pentane and hydrocarbons are recovered by activated carbon.
5. Activated carbon used in soft drinks:
Wine and hard alcohol are filtered through granular activated carbon to recover the elements in the sample and in the oil. Brandy is filtered through activated carbon to recover undesirable flavors, which are eliminated during production and storage. Activated carbon reduces Aldehyde in the crude distillation and increases precipitation. In beer production, activated carbon increases brewing quality, improves color and separates flavor, increases phenol and color.
6. Filter sugar, oil, grease:
Activated carbon used in the sugar industry mainly eliminates color for better color and significantly improves the characteristics of the production process. Treated with activated charcoal helps to separate the surface agent and colloids to increase the surface tension and reduce viscosity. This increases the rate of sugar crystallization and increases the syrup separation and crystallizing substance by centrifugation method.
For oil and grease, activated carbon is used in the linking process of the bleach to separate unwanted color. The addition of activated carbon shows that bleach reduces adsorption mixture to reach the desired effect.
7. Activated carbon used in medicine:
A special application of activated carbon is used in the treatment of breathing problems, digestive system kills bacteria, easily absorbed and rapidly adsorbed by activated carbon because of high molecular weight.
Besides, activated carbon is also used to treat gastric and intestinal inflammation, used as an antidote in cases of poisoning from mushrooms, food, chemicals derived from plants, used as drugs, phospho , phenol, etc… Activated carbon used to filter cigarette removes nicotine and other toxic gases in cigarette smoke.
B. INSTRUCTION FOR ACTIVATED CARBON:
No uncertainty cases occur when using this product.
When used and preserved, put it in a dry place, well-ventilated, away from possible sources of fire, avoid direct sunlight and water leakage.
Activated carbon is compressed into blocks easily by air pressure inside the bag, and under this pressure, activated carbon will break when we open the bag.
Using masks to avoid inhaling much of charcoal dust because it may contain more than 1% oxide. Inhaling charcoal dust for long period at high level can lead to respiratory failure.
When workers work in a place containing activated carbon, be cautious because the oxygen content can be lower in this place because activated carbon release oxygen out of this place.
When activated carbon in eyes, rinse eyes with clean water, avoid rubbing and consult a doctor.